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L'école Économique Autrichienne (Collection Repères)

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  • 1 month later...

Je ne connais pas très bien l'auteur mais j'ai lu quelques-uns de ses articles, notamment celui-ci : http://www.eco.unibs.it/~palermo/PDF/2005-rope.pdf, qui est critique de l'école autrichienne.




The passage to policy pronouncements requires the prior establishment of an explicit ethics, as Mises (1949, pp. 153–154) makes clear:

Liberalism (i.e. laissez-faire liberalism) is a political doctrine. [. . .] As a political doctrine liberalism (in contrast to economic science) is not neutral with regard to values and ultimate ends sought by action. [. . .] The champions of liberal doctrines are fully aware of the fact that their teachings are valid only for people who are committed to their ethical principles. While praxeology, and therefore economics too, uses the terms happiness and removal of uneasiness in a purely formal sense, liberalism attaches to them a concrete meaning. It presupposes that people prefer life to death, health to sickness, nourishment to starvation, abundance to poverty. It teaches man how to act in accordance with these valuations.

According to Rothbard, Mises introduced the minimal possible degree of value judgment in his application of the results of praxeology to politics: ‘his value judgment is the desirability of fulfilling the subjectively desired goals of the bulk of the populace’ (Rothbard, 1976, p. 105). This statement plays the same role as the minimal benevolence principle in the neoclassical framework. It simply means that it is desirable that people can act according to their will. This is nothing other than the classical liberal doctrine that morally supports the values of liberty, of individual sovereignty and promotes the voluntarism of choices. These values are presented as being so innocuous that almost nobody would question them and are in this sense said to be ‘quasi-universal’.

Autant il y a des choses à discuter qui ne sont pas évidentes et prêtent à diverses interprétations (le critère de "coordination" dont elle parle par ailleurs, par exemple), autant là il faut vraiment y mettre la mauvaise volonté ou être d'une manière ou d'une autre à l'ouest pour interpréter ainsi les propos de Mises et Rothbard.

Evidemment, ce n'est pas le libéralisme qui est présenté par Mises comme un ensemble de jugements de valeurs non controversé, mais le fait de préférer la vie à la mort, la santé à la maladie, l'abondance à la pauvreté, etc.

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